First, the sticky graphene tape
This happened in 2004. The two professors taped to graphite (the main material of the pencil lead was graphite, not lead) and then tore it off and found that the tape was coated with a thin layer of graphite. Nothing new, but the two professors whim, took the second piece of tape to stick the graphite flakes left on the first piece of tape. At this time, the two pieces of tape were stuck together, and then the two pieces of tape were torn apart. As a result, it was found that the graphite flakes remaining on the tape became thin. Many people feel bored at this time, not tearing the tape. The professors found that the graphite film became thinner and then he held a third piece of tape to stick the graphite on the second piece of tape. Sheets of adhesive tape... Just like this time and again, sticky tape, tear tape, and finally the two professors got a tiny graphite sheet that was too thin to be thin. It was only a layer of atomic thickness. Right, it was a single layer. Graphite is called graphene.
Since its first successful stripping of graphene in 2004, its amazing material properties have led to extensive research by a large number of scientists in the past decade, and these two professors have also won the 2010 Nobel Prize in physics.
The prize awards say (excerpt):
“We have known Graphene for a long time. As early as 1947, Philip Wallace calculated the electron motion in graphene. However, few scientists think that we can separate and measure single-layer graphene. The electronic physics of this year, therefore, this year's physics prize is even more surprising, Andrei Heim and Konstantin Novoselov have succeeded in separating thin-layer graphene with special methods and in different microscopes. With the help of the discovery, some lamellae are monoatomic. Their "breakthrough experiments" in graphene make it possible to use graphene to produce new substances and new electronic products."
After the birth of single-layer graphene, many scientists are actively exploring the possibility to produce graphenes with larger scale and higher quality. In addition to sticking with tape, there are many other methods for preparing graphene, such as micro mechanical peeling, Chemical stripping, chemical vapor deposition, etc.
2. Why did graphene become popular and popular all over the world?
So, how powerful is the nature of graphene so much that it is now studying physics, chemistry, materials, electrical engineering, mechanical engineering, and even student things? This is related to the structure and properties of graphene. Graphene is composed of carbon atoms. Carbon atoms form a chemical bond in a regular hexagonal arrangement. This carbon atom distribution structure gives graphene many unique properties.
First, graphene has an extremely high electron mobility (which plays an important role in the speed of computer operation) and is 200 times that of silicon (currently a CPU (Computer Central Processing Unit) material).
Second, graphene has the highest thermal conductivity (determining thermal conductivity) of currently known materials. Its thermal conductivity is 13 to 15 times that of silver, 80 to 90 times that of iron, and 8,000 to 9,000 times that of water.
Third, graphene has a very high breaking strength, which is 200 times that of ordinary steel.
In addition, graphene has excellent light transmission and flexibility. These extraordinary properties make graphene a well-deserved star material.
Third, live up to expectations, graphene is changing our lives
With these remarkable properties, where can graphene be used?
Graphene may become a super material instead of silicon and will hopefully promote revolutionary development in the field of computer hardware. We know that silicon is a kind of semiconductor, and it is a material for manufacturing computer CPU. The size of computers and their hardware is continuously shrinking, thanks to the smaller and smaller chips. But due to the limitations of silicon materials itself, theoretically 5 nanometers (1 nanometer equals one thousandth of a micron, one billionth of a meter) is its physical limit, and in fact is limited to the process, silicon-based chips only Can do 7 nanometers can not be smaller, otherwise it will lose the corresponding performance (such as leakage). Thanks to the high electron mobility, graphene, the emerging star material, will be able to compensate for the short board of silicon in the micro-computer hardware, make the chip smaller and smaller, and electronic products will become more and more light and run. The ability will be more and more powerful.
The excellent electron transport properties of graphene allow it to be used in batteries. Graphene has already been used successfully in lithium batteries (widely used in mobile devices such as mobile phones and computers). It can be used as an electrode additive to add electrodes. The conductivity, thereby speeding up the charging speed. In addition, since graphene has excellent transparency, it also has a good application prospect in photovoltaic devices. For example, graphene is now used in many parts of solar cells, and flexible displays of electronic products also use graphite. Ene.
In addition, the superior electron transport properties of graphene have also been applied to neurotransmission, brain-like computation and artificial intelligence research and applications. Its excellent mechanical properties make it a promising candidate for use in composites. Ultra-strength graphene composites can be used as ultra-thin and ultra-light materials for aircrafts.
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